How to Research Stocks Before You Buy [How to Pick Stocks]

Qualitative Research to Review for Stocks

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Quantitative research can provide you an understanding of where the company has come. But you need more color understanding where the company might go.

Qualitative research can help you to build the company’s story to guide your investment decision.

Some of the questions you might look to answer for seeing where a business might head include:

→ What is the company’s mission/vision?

A company’s mission or vision can go a long way to providing investors with an idea of what the company stands for.

A clear understanding of how the company is trying to compete in its market can provide insight into whether or not they have staying power, and if there will be future growth opportunities.

→ How does the company make money?

Perhaps the most important question to potential investors, you want to know how a company makes money.

Does a company make a product, sell a service, offer a package to customers?

Sometimes how a company makes money is readily apparent like a grocery store. Other times, it might be a company based on a recurring service model like a SaaS firm (software-as-a-service).

The company might earn money from customer subscriptions to their software platform, but earn most of their profit from consultation, implementation and maintenance.

→ How are they different from their competition?

You don’t want to buy stock in a company that has no competitive advantage. These companies will not survive in the long-run because they do not differentiate themselves from anyone else in the industry.

Companies want to establish a way to differentiate themselves from their competitors. They do so by providing a unique and differentiating value proposition to the marketplace that is not offered by anyone else.

This could be a distinguishing product feature, excellent customer service in an industry not known for it, superior distribution capabilities or something else.

→ Where do you see them in five years’ time and why?

Fundamental investors tend to look at long-term potential for companies they own. This isn’t always the case, but I hold a bias for long-term investing and think a company’s multi-year vision should factor into your research.

If a company has an ambitious growth plan that will unfold over the following years, they’re worth investigating more closely.

Apart from the company’s long-term goals, you should also ask:

Does the industry have a lot of barriers to entry?

Is it competitive and lucrative?

Does this company possess characteristics that will allow them to dominate their competition in years to come?

Is there potential for future mergers or acquisitions?

Consider how all of these elements play into the company’s growth trajectory and how their management can execute.

→ How has the company’s management performed?

A company can only perform as well as its leadership allows. It’s up to them to set the direction for the company and the objectives it hopes to accomplish.

To understand how a management team performs, you’ll need to follow the broader developments happening with the company but also by reading or hearing their words.

The best places to get a sense of their thinking comes from earnings calls or from SEC filings disclosing their discussion and analysis.

Qualitative research can be a valuable tool to help investors better understand how businesses work, but it should never replace quantitative analysis as the basis of investment decisions.

This will guide your understanding on where stocks might go in future months or years instead of just looking at recent performance trends.

This is important because qualitative research usually looks beyond short term stock price changes that are driven by events like quarterly earnings announcements which may not provide much insight into long term outlooks.

Qualitative research also provides context about what’s happening in the world, and how that might affect a given company.

Putting All This Research in Context

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Once you’ve put in all the above work, you’ll need to make sense of everything you’ve learned. This means putting all of your stock research in context.

You can never run short of financial metrics, ratios or measures to assess. The most important ones, called out above, provide a very good understanding of a company’s performance to date and how valuable the market sees it.

Even more important, once you’ve done your due diligence, your research isn’t done.

If your company operates in a dynamic industry or constantly makes adjustments to its business to remain competitive, you’ll need to continue analyzing developments with useful stock news apps and other sources as they could affect the stock price.

So much happens outside of what we can see on our screens or read on social media, which means there may be an underlying story going on with any given company that has not been revealed yet.

This could be an upcoming launch of a new product line or service offering, or a change in leadership. As information comes out, compare this to your original investment rationale and see if it still holds true.

Market Assumptions to Know When Researching Stocks

investor looking at monitors medium

→ Markets Discount Everything

Keep in mind that markets discount everything. Unfortunately, this isn’t using the word “discounts” to mean “on sale.” This means markets price all publicly-available information into a stock and trade in an efficient manner based on it.

This relies on the efficient market hypothesis, stating markets reflect all available information. By extension, this also means beating the market isn’t possible.

→ Everything is Priced In

Or is it? According to technical analysts, every available factor comes reflected in the price of a stock. 

Technical analysts believe your focus should be on analyzing price movements, which change based on supply and demand for the stock. All other factors involve too much guesswork.

→ Prices Move in Trends

Technical analysts also work on the market assumption that prices move in trends. This is a good thing. The trend is your friend. 

The stock market is more likely to continue a past trend than to move randomly. A trend is expected to continue until it shows signs of a reversal. 

It works like Newton’s first law of motion. A stock trend continues on its course until an external force changes its direction. 

Analyzing candlestick charts with a stock analysis app is a popular way to look for signals that a reversal is coming. 

This is in line with the Dow Theory, which looks at the relationship between industrials and transportation. 

When one of the markets climbs to a new high, investors expect the other to do the same fairly quickly. If it doesn’t, there will likely be a reversal. 

→ History Tends to Repeat

According to technical analysts, history tends to repeat itself. 

The repetitiveness of price movements is frequently attributed to market psychology, which is often very predictable based on human emotions with stocks

By using chart patterns to analyze emotions and how they affect market movements, one is said to be able to understand trends better. 

However, this aspect of technical analysis is often criticized and many other investors ignore price patterns. 

It’s possible that technical traders using the same information may all choose to short a stock around the same time. This causes the stock price to go down and when others see it declining, they sell as well. 

The trend may be more of a self-fulling prophecy than based on logic and may have no bearing on where the stock’s price will be in the future.

How to Pick Stocks and Buy for the Long-Term

After conducting this research with gathered sources, assessing and measuring financial metrics, reviewing qualitative considerations and putting it all in context, you’ll need to decide to invest or pass.

You’ll also need to choose how long you think the company will serve as a good investment. That means buying and holding, or trading for the short-term due to temporary valuation discrepancies.

When buying for the long-term, you’ll want to have a long-term perspective of how the company will fare in the next several years.

That means maintaining an important position as part of your portfolio with money you’re prepared to lose, and not relying on daily updates or market fluctuations.

You’ll hold the stock in your investment account and watch the company perform over longer periods of time.

You’ll want to choose investments that earn a great return and consider what you expect your returns will be with this company.

Intraday Stock Buying (and Selling)

falling stock market graph

Intraday stock buying and selling, also referred to as day trading, is when traders attempt to profit from price changes within a single day.

Day trading is risky, but can be profitable for those who are familiar with the techniques.

Day traders focus on very liquid stocks, meaning shares can be quickly bought and sold because of the high volume. Stocks with mid to high volatility work best. 

You can focus on stocks that move a lot in terms of dollars or percentages. The more it moves up and down, the more opportunity for profit. 

The tricky part is that you can never know at precisely what point a rising stock will go back down. 

Don’t get greedy and hold on too long or the trend will reverse and you’ll lose money rather than gain it. People who hold a stock too long are often called “bagholders.”

In the cryptocurrency markets, people who hold on forever collectively refer to this practice as “HODL.” The term, now known as “hold on for dear life,” originated as a typo for “HOLD”.

Many in the crypto community continue this practice as a financial mantra to survive the extreme bouts of volatility seen in the virtual currencies.

In other investments, it’s essential to have entry and exit strategies. Stick to the guidelines you set for yourself for when to buy and sell so emotions don’t get in the way and leave you holding the bag. 

Let yourself take regular profits. Setting trailing stops can help with this.

Many people lose money in stock trading because they are basing their decisions on “hot tips.” Trade based on facts, not rumors. Trading on rumors is gambling. 

Instead, try to pick stocks for day trading by isolating the current market trends and capitalizing on them. Ignore “inside information” others try to push to you.

Remember that intraday trading profits are taxed as short-term gains, which, for most tax brackets, means you’re being taxed higher than long-term profits.

You can subscribe to investment newsletters or stock advisor services to source your ideas, though make sure you research the recommendations fully.

Related: 8 Best Stock Trading & Investing Apps for Beginners [2021]

How to Research a Stock Before You Buy

There are no guarantees in the stock market, especially for short-term trading. 

For this reason, it’s crucial to thoroughly research stocks before purchasing them. Look at a stock’s fundamentals, business prospects, competitive advantages and leadership performance.

From there, you’ll likely want to look toward a stock’s technicals like trendlines, liquidity, simple moving averages, and more. 

This information can assist with developing a full picture not only on the investment justification for the company, but also on the timing for buying the stock.

If you need help finding stocks to research, consider using a trusted investment research website, such as the Motley Fool. You may think you can’t afford an investment service, but choosing the wrong stocks ends up being much more expensive. 

The more you know about a stock’s value, the more you can make informed decisions that make your money grow.

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